Abnormal and Clinical Psychology
“What is normal about abnormality?”This essay will explain why it is difficult to define, classify and diagnose normal and abnormal behaviour. It will evaluate abnormality through cultural issues and diagnostic techniques and strive to, illustrate the possible causes of mental disorders.Abnormal and normal behaviour is not easily defined. What is abnormal? It is to deviate from the norm. What is normal? Normality is dependent on religious beliefs, developmental stage, maturity and most importantly an individual’s environment; cultural difference which will determine acceptable behaviour. As there are no diagnostic tests to determine abnormality, psychiatrists are reliant upon symptoms and subjective criteria. However, defining normality is even more difficult but the majority of psychologists agree the following points specify emotional well-being and agree with Atkinson et al.(1993), for the ideal mental health criteria is Efficient perception of reality; Accurate self-knowledge; Ability to exercise voluntary control over behaviour; Self-esteem and acceptance; Ability to form affectionate relationships; and Productivity.
There are four models of Abnormality which are: Medical –Pinel (1745-1826) for Europe and Dix – (1802-1887) for America, the practice is used worldwide; Psychodynamic – psychodynamism came about in the late nineteenth century by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that mental disorders were caused by internal factors, he looked at these as psychological rather than physical condition; Behavioural – Watson and Rayner (1920) cause could be environmental factors and the conditioning of fear or other conditions; and Cognitive – Bandura (1969) through observation….
…, expectations and attitudes in abnormalities. Therapeutic therapy aims to alter thought processes and monitor effectiveness in everyday life and has a more complete approach than other therapies. Albert Ellis (1962) used rational emotive therapy (RET), which encouraged realistic expectations of themselves.To conclude the research of normal and abnormal behaviour has come a long way over the years. Treatment of abnormalities has been improved to help in may ways with the appropriate intervention of therapies. As different cultures have been implemented in the DSM IV, there has been an improvement in diagnostic techniques and controlling behaviour. There are many types and severities of mental disorders which entail different treatments; this is why extensive assessments are compiled before diagnosing. Is that abnormality in normality or is that society is more