Essay Salmonella Spread Typhoid Fever Throughout History


Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects roughly 17 million people annually, causing nearly 600,000 deaths. The causative agent, Salmonella enterica typhi (referred to as Salmonella typhi from now on), is an obligate parasite that has no known natural reservoir outside of humans. Little is known about the historical emergence of human S. typhi infections, however it is thought to have caused the deaths of many famous figures such as British author and poet Rudyard Kipling, the inventor of the airplane, Wilbur Wright, and the Greek Empire’s Alexander the Great. The earliest recorded epidemic occurred in Jamestown, VA where it is thought that 6,000 people died of typhoid fever in the early 17th Century. This disease is rare in the United States and developed nations, but always poses the risk of emergence. Originally isolated in 1880 by Karl J. Erberth, S. typhi is a multi-organ pathogen that inhabits the lympathic tissues of the small intestine, liver, spleen, and bloodstream of infected humans. It is not known to infect animals and is most common in developing countries with poor sanitary systems and lack of antibiotics, putting travelers to Asia, Latin America, and Africa in a high risk group. Of the 266 people infected in the United States in 2002, approximately 70% had traveled internationally within 6 weeks of the onset of disease.

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Spread of typhoid fever

Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. People with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. Also, some people, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but they still carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed Salmonella Typhi in thei…

…atment group. Bacteremia was established in the treatment groups. The level of white blood cells (WBCs) in the rabbits infected with Salmonella typhi but later maintained on ogi, decreased from 4900 mm? to 4200 mm?. Similarly the WBC count decreased from 7300 mm? to 6300 mm? in rabbits that were initially infected (but fed on commercial diet) and later fed with ogi. It could be concluded that ogi could be potent in preventing Salmonella infection and the reduction of microbial load of Salmonella typhi in the blood of the mammals as shown by the microbial and haematological indices.


In conclusion, typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. However, resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded from handling food. Unfortunately, nowadays we have more salmonella than the past because now more chickens are sick.


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